A dictionary definition of War is “ a province of unfastened, armed, frequently drawn-out struggle carried on between states, provinces, or parties ” . Whilst this definition is clear enough it does non come near to researching the true significance of war in footings of emotions and the effects of war on humanity as elaborate throughout history by the poets. Wars prior to 1914 hold inspired poets to enter for descendants the grime difficult facts of struggle and the impact on lives – “ While Corvus coraxs and kites peck at human visceras ” ( Li Po or Li Bai ‘s “ Nefarious War ” ) . Other poets have used war to excite their audience, possibly to take up weaponries “ When can their glorification fade? O the wild charge they made ” ( Alfred Lord Tennyson ‘s “ The Charge of the Light Brigade ” ) , while others have used poesy to enter glorious Acts of the Apostless to keep the memory and possibly warrant a past war – “ So on they fought like a whirl of life fire ” ( Homer ‘s “ The Iliad ” ) which remained merely as a verbal record for centuries before it was written down.
The verse forms studied have explored the different facets of war. From Homer ‘s “ The Iliad ” and his glorious description of Menelaus ‘ Finest Hour through to Alfred Lord Tennyson ‘s court to courage and honor in his famed “ The Charge of the Light Brigade ” to Li Po ‘s “ Nefarious War ” this essay will research how poets have considered the impact of war on humanity. This essay will touch on the simple beat of Whitman ‘s “ Beat! Beat! Drum! ” and narrative provided in another Walt Whitman ‘s lament “ Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night I kept one dark ” . This essay will contrast the glorification of a cavalry charge with Whitman ‘s oppressing description of the devolution of a bereft female parent in “ Come up from the Fields Father ” . This essay will see how these verse forms compare across the scope of emotion all of which humanity has experienced when war is declared, fought or concluded. This essay will besides do mention on John Scott ‘s “ The Drum ” , comparing to the antipathy for the different sounds of war.
Homer ‘s “ The Iliad ” is an heroic verse form stating the narrative of the Trojan War. It is set in a clip where people considered the Supreme beings to be all powerful and present in life influencing every facet of human being. The war referred to in “ The Iliad ” was the Trojan War fought between the Greeks and the Trojans in what is now mainland Turkey. The war took topographic point in the 8th or 9th century BC. The heroic poem verse form concerned the celebrated narrative of the abduction of Helen of Troy by Paris and her hubby, the Greek King Menelaus ‘ war to derive her dorsum and destruct the metropolis of Troy. The Greeks landed close to Troy and besieged the metropolis for 10 old ages. During these old ages a figure of conflicts were fought and “ The Iliad ” provided a narrative of these battles. One such episode describes the battle over the organic structure Patroclus, a friend of Achilles, who had been killed by Hector, the Trojan hero. In depicting the battle for Patroclus ‘ organic structure Homer recalls the Gods Ares, Athena and eventually Zeus and compares the warriors attempts to those of the Gods “ Not even Ares[ 1 ], lasher of ground forcess, non even Athena[ 2 ]Watching the conflict here could contemn its rage ” Homer demonstrates the supreme attempt made to retrieve the organic structure of a dead companion. The usage of anaphora here helps to foreground the colossal attempt demonstrated during the struggle that non even the Acts of the Apostless of Supreme beings could compare. This comparing by Homer may hold been a utile device in the context of the times in which the verse form was retold – normally by going histrions conveying narratives to distant Grecian small towns, the comparing of attempt to that of the Gods implies superhuman strength designed, no uncertainty, to animate awe from the villagers. Therefore the “ Iliad ” can besides be compared to a type of propaganda, non merely to entertain the multitudes, but besides to remind them that the work forces at weaponries in the service of the King were to be non merely admired but feared ; in this manner demoing an consequence on humanity.
Homer sets a scene that is full of work forces coping, contending and striving. This colossus like battle contrasts with Whitman ‘s lament “ Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night I kept on the field one dark ” where the writer ‘s contemplations on the after conflict scene describe a quiet alone topographic point “ Vigil fantastic and vigil Sweet at that place in the fragrant silent dark, But non a tear fell, non even a long-drawn suspiration, long, long I gazed.. ” His usage of long drawn suspiration and repeat of “ long ” suggest clip and infinite for contemplation as opposed to the crowded feel of the combat in the Iliad. Further, Homer ‘s description of the environment “ Fought on at their easiness beneath a clear blue sky, Sharp glare of sunlight glistening round them, non a cloud in sight to shadow the Earth and mountains. Work force who fought at a distance worked with frequent interruptions ” suggest a Sun scorched, hot sudating topographic point where grit and dust mix with blood to make a awful scene. The imagination created would hold been familiar to hearers who will hold recognised such a hot eastern Mediterranean clime. Homer ‘s attempts to guarantee his hearers recognition travel some manner to leting empathy with the heroes in the verse form. This narrative manner contrasts with the short clipped poetry in “ The Drum ” by John Scott which has an absence of any description of the environment in which the struggles referred to take topographic point.
In “ The Iliad ” , Homer sets the scene supplying a background for the hearer to link with whereas Whitman ‘s verse form has no purpose or demand for such description as his purpose is dramatically different. In ” The Drum ” the environment has no relevancy above the message that the buffeting of the membranophone is the courier of day of reckoning. Similarly, “ Beat! Beat! Drum! ” by Walt Whitman is being described by a probationary soldier ; the soldier illustrates the hate he obtains for this membranophone that is crushing for the announcing of war interrupting out. John Scott uses a really common poetic device in “ The Drum ” ; he utilizes poetic metre to make the beat therefore making an reverberation of the membranophones. He uses iambic tetrameter as shown in the undermentioned citation ; “ I hate that membranophones discordant sound/ parading unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition ” . The form of the stressed and unstressed syllables ( -/-/-/-/ ) conveys how the membranophone in the verse form is being played. For Scott, the sound is hateful as it calls immature work forces “ to contend and fall in foreign lands ” . In Whitman ‘s verse form he writes utilizing free poetry, nevertheless, the heavy emphasiss on the syllables on the gap line besides demonstrates the sound of the membranophone. This suggests the destructive nature of war on humanity. The usage of onomatopoeia in “ Beat! Beat! Drum! ” besides helps propose this.
In Homer ‘s “ The Iliad ” , I feel as though Homer ‘s geographic expedition on the consequence of war on humanity is really clear. He shows the physically grueling experience of being on the conflict field, with the Gods as inactive witnesss. “ The Iliad ” includes a batch of mentions to the immature work forces involved with conflict ; “ Grim and grueling, relentless swamping labor, non halt ” . Homer is doing it clear through the usage of initial rhyme, a list and negative words that these work forces are working really hard. This can be compared to the lament “ Come Up From The Fields Father ” , as Whitman besides shows the consequence war has on immature work forces. However, the two different poets have different thoughts to set across to the reader. Homer wanted to demo the benefits of the immature combat because of the enthusiastic attack revealed by them. Whitman wanted to demo the negative consequence of war on the immature soldiers and their households. In the verse form the household of the immature soldier receives a missive that tells them he has been injured ; “ gunfire lesion in the chest, horse brush, taken to infirmary ” . The impact the missive has on the household is lay waste toing and when the female parent finds out that her “ lone boy is dead ” , she is so grief stricken that she wants to decease.
The 2nd antediluvian verse form under consideration is Li Po ‘s “ Nefarious War ” . Li Po or Li Bai, the fluctuation of Romanization of ??Zc™? , was a poet who lived around 700 BC in imperial China. He was a celebrated poet who wrote many verse forms on varied topics including war, love and vino. He was renowned for his ability to compose without rectification. His calling was spent in the tribunal of the Chin Dynasty[ 3 ]but he fell foul to tribunal machination and finally committed self-destruction. Li Po was non a soldier but in his “ Nefarious War ” the talker is clearly a warrior, who negotiations of his fatigue with struggle and his contemplation on war ‘s impact. At the clip of composing imperial China was engaged in uninterrupted battle to support its boundary lines against marauding folk. The impact on its people was considerable. Given the huge size of China it was non possible to support all the district under the emperor and hence much clip was spent on the run where the ground forcess would go for old ages to battle warring hosts or folks trying to steal district, people or ownerships.
Po seems to propose war is ineluctable. His first stanza describes locations of the runs “ the head-stream of the Sang-kan ” , “ the Tsung-ho route ” , “ the moving ridges of Chiao-chi lake ” and the grazing lands “ on Tien-shan ‘s snowy inclines ” . This can be compared to Homer ‘s description of the fields of Troy where a specific conflict is fought for a specific ground. Li Po provides no peculiar political ground for war other than the demand for defence against a enemy. “ Nefarious War ” suggests an unrelenting, crunching abrasion where the guardians of the imperium demand to be of all time alert “ Where the Chin emperor built the walls against the Tartars, There the guardians of Han are firing beacon fires. The beacon fires burn and ne’er travel out, There is no terminal to war ” this meaning a changeless province of watchfulness utilizing initial rhyme to do the point “ burning beacon fires./The beacon fires burn ” where the usage of “ B ” provides a rough staccato and repeat provide a preliminary to the concluding “ There is no terminal to war ” proposing an exhausting vigil followed by the suggestion of plaint that no terminal to the struggle is in sight. Due to the cheerless linguistic communication Po uses, one idea springs to mind, Po might good be doing a supplication for peace symptomatic of a demand for remainder from the of all time present danger and the demand for a changeless ticker. This can be contrasted to the conflict being described by Homer, it is stated that the combat is done in one topographic point, non on a widespread graduated table.
Additionally, there are many mentions to the length of war, the fact that war goes on forever. Li Po describes the struggles as “ The long, long war goes on 10s thousand stat mis from place. The repeat used here is really effectual, it makes the reader feels the existent look of boredom made by talker. Besides, Po uses the repeat to associate to the thought of the life of a warrior being drilling ; the mere fact that it is the same mundane and nil alterations. John Scott uses repeat in his verse form “ The Drum ” with his mention to the military personnels exhibiting “ unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition ” . This is similar to the repeat of “ Long, long ” which suggests that war has a negative consequence on humanity.
Li Po goes on to depict the battleground in his 3rd stanza. “ In the battleground work forces grapple each other and die ” provides a brief drumhead compared to Homer ‘s elaborate description of the battle for Patroclus ‘ organic structure. Li Po ‘s economic system with words suggests a different position of war. Far from it being an celebrated battle between work forces for a ground ( the recovery of Patroclus ‘ organic structure ) the empty, uselessness suggested in this gap line portray a futility. Li Po contrasts the leaders with the followings “ So, work forces are scattered and smeared over the desert grass, and the generals have accomplished nil ” . Here it is the ordinary soldiers that do the deceasing whilst the generals who command the ground forces achieve small by the attempts of their work forces. In “ The Charge of the Light Brigade ” Tennyson refers to this component of war with his “ Not though the soldier knew, some one had blundered ” where generals order the deceases of work forces under their bid without idea. However Tennyson goes on to emphasis the gallantry and dedication to duty displayed by the horse at Balaclava whereas Li Po ‘s mention to the work forces and Equus caballuss deceasing simply reminds the reader of the impact of conflict on them ( “ The Equus caballuss of the vanquished utter deplorable calls to heaven ” ) . This reminds us that the consequence of war is non merely on humanity, but on the animate beings. This can be hence related back to Po ‘s point about the gravitation of war and how it affects everyone, that it is ineluctable and destructive
Li Po suggests a batch about the departure of the organic structures on the conflict field. The mere fact of different birds of quarry pecking at the “ human visceras ” explains to us that the covering with human human deaths at this clip was really hapless. This image is abhorrent – it is clear that they do n’t even care what happens to the organic structures due to the negative diction. However if you contrast this to Homer ‘s “ The Iliad ” , the battle for a hero ‘s organic structure, such attention and passion demonstrated in for the organic structure of Patroclus and to guarantee a proper entombment. This is of class non the instance for the organic structures being described by Po. In Whitman ‘s “ Vigil Strange I Kept On The Field One Night ” , there are many mentions to a brother or really close friend relationship between the two companions stand foring, on a general graduated table, the bond between soldiers at the clip of the American Civil War. An interesting point is that if we compare “ Nefarious War ” with the position of “ Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night ” , it demonstrates the patterned advance in concern for soldiers as human existences, over the centuries, with single lives and households instead than merely complete ground forcess or nameless organic structures on the battleground. At a point of involvement, “ The Iliad ” and “ Nefarious War ” were written in different parts of the universe ; therefore this can be linked to the struggle that exists today. This is the clang of Western vs. Eastern civilization ; it can be interoperated that Homer was showing the ethos of his people and Li Po making the same. Both poets stand foring the manner in which warfare is dealt in their civilization.
Through out the scope of verse forms that are being considered, there are facets of soldiers fall ining in integrity. Perceptibly it is barely used at all in “ Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night ” , as the thought that the poet wants to acquire across is the construct of the single love and non of companions demoing integrity. One may even feel an feeling of ignorance, coming from the poet, of the soldiers ‘ feelings or of the awful effects of the war-worn environment that surround them by concentrating on one relationship and non the large image. However, this is decidedly non the instance shown in “ Nefarious War ” ; Po wants the widespread effects on humanity to be evident while being read. “ Last twelvemonth we fought by the head-stream of the Sang-kan, this twelvemonth we are contending on the Tsung-ho route. We have washed our armour in the moving ridges of Chiao-chi Lake ; we have pastured our Equus caballuss on Tien-shan ‘s snowy inclines ” . The repeat of “ we ” in this context is an effectual agencies of drawing in the reader and leting Po to make integrity between himself and his companions. “ We ” is frequently used as a motivational device to organize a community within a group ; it is used to demo equality from even the lowest ranked soldier contending aboard to a King. In this instance, Po is seeking to show to the reader the cosmopolitan agony that is taking topographic point. This can be contrasted, with great lucidity, to “ Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night ” , by the writer demoing single anguish alternatively of a corporate wretchedness.
Whilst the wretchedness illustrated by Po throughout his verse form does look to deflect from the existent descriptive nature of the war, his message should non be ignored – that war is a destructive force and nil good comes out of it. However, it is worthy of note that Po ‘s exploration/description of war differs from Homer ‘s or Whitman ‘s. Whitman shows an energized attack towards war, as though, he is retrieving action to go on, for illustration, “ Beat! Beat! Drums! — Blow! Bugles! Blow! Through the Windowss — through doors — burst like a ruthless force ” . This citation demonstrates a existent eruption of Whitman ‘s message here – that war is destructive, the explosive “ B ” initial rhyme articulated by Whitman shows us the echt energy that war does in fact bring. In the first stanza of “ Nefarious War ” , the thought of weariness is portrayed by Po with a idea of no hope, “ ground forcess [ have ] worn and adult old ” . An automatic image that comes to mind when including such words as “ old ” and “ worn ” gives off the negative vibration intended by Po, it makes us conceive of a annihilative ground forces consisting of a few work forces. Consequently, Po deliberately exemplifying the effects on humanity but particularly the armed forces of the state.
In malice of this ; Po uses a batch of active verbs in the 3rd stanza, comparable to the energy in “ The Iliad ” . Po uses words such as “ grapnel ” and “ vanquish ” . This can be compared to the violent words used by Homer. The image in our caputs of work forces “ choping ” the lines to pieces and the illustration of “ both sides dragging the cadaver ” . These looks are full of energy ; they are the many of the violent cinematic imagination used by Homer to explicate the existent “ being at that place ” consequence the poet wants the reader to see. In add-on to that point, Homer wanted to describe the horror of the conflict of Troy ; as a effect he uses much hyperbole to floor his audience. One of the really moving similes Homer utilizations to depict the combat is the nexus to fire, associating the combat as a “ whirl of life fire ” . The chief descriptive word here is “ fire ” , which gives an feeling of slaughter and mayhem. This is precisely what Homer wants to make ; he wants to explicate to the reader what a feverish conflict this truthfully is.
“ Nefarious War ” has a batch in common with another Whitman verse form, “ Come Up From the Fields Father ” . This poem trades with the torture of war on humanity. It is about a missive geting at a family in America reading that the boy has a “ gunshot lesion to his chest ” . This of class is lay waste toing to the household. Whitman so focuses on the female parent ‘s reaction, which is conking traveling “ Sickly white in the face ” and accordingly wishing to decease when she discovers her boy is dead. “ Come Up From The Fields Father ” can be compared to “ Nefarious War ” in that they both trade on the consequence of war on humanity and the perturbation of the normal life. “ While they stand at place at the door he is dead already, The lone boy is dead ” . This citation is equal for what the writer is seeking to explicate to the reader, the thought is linked back to what Po wants to acquire across, the suggestion of no hope. This image plays in our head, the word “ merely ” automatically creates an image of loneliness or “ merely one ” , and this showing the annihilating effects that war has on household life hence Whitman demoing no amnesty towards war.
If you look at the different poetic devices used by Homer and Po, you will see that Homer uses a batch of enjambments to retain the flow of the action in the conflict ; In Nefarious War there is merely one illustration of enjambement. An illustration from the illiad is ; “ Achaeans to drag him back to the hollow ships/ And unit of ammunition him ever the barbarous battle raging. ” It is deserving observing how Homer wants the flow to remain fluid when being read ; this is done by non utilizing a comma at the terminal of the first line, “ hollow ships ” . Po wants to acquire the message through about the immoralities of war ; he shows this by utilizing negative poetic devices, such as sibilance. Sibilance comes from the Latin word significance “ hushing ” the nexus to the ancient belief of a serpent hushing ; this being the nexus to evil. As in the bible, Satan disguised himself as a serpent in the garden of immorality. The representation of this is made by writers ‘ usage of s, soft degree Celsius, sh and omega sounds. “ So, work forces are scattered and smeared ” . The note “ smeared ” is a really ugly word, it creates an automatic blood shed image, the intimation of smearing blood on a blade. The construct of “ work forces [ being ] scattered ” is really powerful to the reader, it creates a image of a bomb shell hitting the conflict field. This citation is really clear in what Po wants you to acquire from his verse form ; he wants you to pick up on the immoralities of war, as shown by the usage of sibilance. Po besides wants you pick up on the effects of war on humanity, humanity being the work forces that have been “ scattered and smeared ” .
Po comes across as one of the normal work forces affected by the war take parting in his state ; he uses a first manus history, manufacturing the battle of the humanity in ancient China. After all, war affected the tally of the factory adult male, non specially trained soldiers, the mean husbandman as hinted by Po ; “ The savage does man-slaughter, non ploughing ” . This completes Po ‘s message to the reader, the idea of war holding an consequence on non merely humanity but the support and the well-being of households. Therefore Po deliberately demoing the reader the abhorrent effects of war on the humanity in China at the clip.
Tennyson ‘s “ Charge of the Light Brigade ” is an illustration of a war verse form written for a intent that to supply some utile propaganda and to understand this more to the full the context environing the scene needs to be considered.The Crimean War ( 1853 to 1856 ) fought between the allied alliance ( Britain, France, Turkey and Sardinia ) and Russia was the first big graduated table struggle to be covered by journalists as we understand it today. For the first clip studies of conflict could be cabled or returned by fast sloop back to London in clip for newspaper tallies. Histories of the conflict field by independent newsmans shocked the place audience as the public became cognizant for the first clip of the hapless conditions of the combat soldiers and the unqualified nature of the leading.
The struggle surrounded Russia ‘s continual menace to the Ottoman Empire. Russia required a warm H2O port in the Mediterranean and provoked a war with Turkey over spiritual affairs in Ottoman held Jerusalem. Britain and France came to Turkey ‘s assistance and sent work forces and ships to the black sea to counter the Russian menace to the Bosphorus. At this period, Britain was at its most powerful with an imperium stretching around the Earth. British high quality in trade, fabrication and sea power provided a sense of indomitability to the state who supported the war. Technology had developed to enable telegraphic communications and picture taking and so it was possible for the struggle to be followed both in the written signifier and visually in much shorter timescales than of all time before. Russell of “ The Times ” was the most celebrated letter writer.
The alliance forces had landed in the Crimea on the black sea and laid besieging to Sevastopol, the chief Russian port in the country. The alliance forces were thinly stretched through conflict casualties but chiefly through disease and hapless healthful conditions. In an effort to raise the besieging the Russian forces attacked the alliance wing at Balaklava. During this action there were three major events, the Highland soldier ‘s opposition to a Russian horse charge – the Thin Red Line – the Charge of the Heavy Brigade to repel a farther horse onslaught and the most celebrated of all, the Charge of the Light Brigade. The first two actions were all right illustrations of British soldiers led by their commanding officers crushing the enemy when licking looked certain, nevertheless it is the Charge of the Light Brigade that has become universe celebrated for its inanity. Against all the recognized regulations of warfare of the twenty-four hours, the British Light horse charged the chief organic structure of the Russian ground forces due to a ill worded order. Many work forces and Equus caballuss were killed for no addition.
The Charge was reported by Russell and along with other studies of the hapless handling of the war, public sentiment turned against the struggle. Florence Nightingale famously intervened with the hurt and set up a infirmary in Scutari. Questions were raised in parliament and long after the war ended there were concerns on all facets of the handling of the war. It is against this background that Tennyson ‘s “ Charge of the Light Brigade ” must be considered. Like Homer, Tennyson had specific grounds for the building of his poesy. The war had proved unpopular and as Poet Laureate, Tennyson may hold been reacting to the public onslaughts against the constitution by showing the charge in its more favorable visible radiation. Tennyson emphasises this in his last three lines “ Honour the charge they made! Honour the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred! ” He keeps this ecstasy to the last to go forth the reader in no uncertainty that whatever the grounds for the blooper the charge was an honest thing.
Tennyson opens the history by animating the beat of the Equus caballuss cantering, “ Half a conference, half a conference, Half a conference onward ” . This is an illustration of dactylic metre with the last pes “ forth ” as trochaic. This usage of metre helps to set up the prologue to the action – the horse steadily progressing on the enemy.
Tennyson takes the reader to the Centre of the action, “ Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to go forth of them, Cannon in forepart of them ” , and “ Stormed at with shooting and shell ” . This usage of anaphora and initial rhyme simulates the consequence of gun fire as the horse move down the vale. Tennyson provides this imagination to put the scene of the slaughter the work forces faced. “ Boldly they rode and good, Into the jaws of Death, Into the oral cavity of Hell ” . Here Tennyson tells us that despite the storm of lead these good trained disciplined soldiers kept traveling where possibly others would hold stopped. He raises this point earlier in the verse form “ Forward, the Light Brigade! ‘ Was there a adult male dismayed? ” This seems at foremost a rhetorical inquiry, nevertheless Tennyson rapidly confirms the irrelevancy of the inquiry with “ Theirs non to do answer, Theirs non to ground why, Theirs but to make and decease ” in making so he reminds the reader that the soldiers were at that place to make their responsibility and non oppugn the purposes of their leaders. The repeat of “ Theirs ” is emphasized. It is non for the soldier to answer to an order neither is it to seek to penetrate the elaboratenesss of military tactics, their occupation was to follow orders and possibly decease in the procedure. Tennyson is reminding the audience of the nature of soldiering and warfare.
The first three stanzas trade with the attack, the 4th addresses the action at the guns while the 5th describes the return of the Light Brigade. Tennyson repeats his usage of initial rhyme here once more Stormed at with shooting and shell to remind the reader that the horse was under fire both in to action and homeward edge.
Against a background of unfavorable judgment of the war Tennyson is reminding the reader throughout that the action was to be admired “ When can their glorification slice?
O the wild charge they made! All the universe wondered. ” Here reminding the reader that through the action Britain remains admired. This contrasts with Li Po ‘s Nefarious War that has none of the elements of message contained within Charge of the Light Brigade. Li Po ‘s verse form is at its bosom anti war ; “ So, work forces are scattered and smeared over the desert grass, And the generals have accomplished nil ” suggests the absolute pointless waste of human life by the soldiers ‘ , leaders. In contrast Tennyson ‘s lone mention to the hapless leading of the war was “ Not though the soldier knew, Someone had blundered ”
Tennyson ‘s averment that some good came out of the action exampled by the glorious military preciseness displayed by the horse “ Boldly they rode and good ” and “ Flashed all their sabers bare, Flashed as they turned in air ” proposing military subject and art, this contrasts with Scott ‘s “ The Drum ” – “ I hate that membranophone ‘s discordant sound, Parading unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition, and unit of ammunition ” the repeat of unit of ammunition provides an imagination of unpointed boring of soldiers undergoing insistent undertakings for no evident ground.
In decision, the scope of verse forms and poets that I have included in my survey have expressed the full scope of emotions and positions from the heroic to the thriftlessness of war but, finally, all have provided a in writing portraiture of the consequence of war on humanity. Of the chief poets that I have concentrated on, Homer and Tennyson focal point on the energy of war and portray human forfeit as the ultimate in. In contrast, Po wants to inform people of the panics of war in order that humanity will larn from the awful deceases of the war-worn and non hold wars in the hereafter. While Po has more of a wide-reaching message, likely aimed at a more at a high political degree, Whitman likewise portrays war as wasteful, he concentrates on the more personal, everyman loss that soldiers ‘ deceases have on households back place. Finally, John Scott ‘s verse form, “ The Drum ” portrays the initial bluster and exhilaration that war can motivate in both soldiers and the people at place, but ends with the barbarous worlds of the “ lacerate limbs, and deceasing moans, And widow ‘s cryings, and orphans ‘ groans, And all that Misery ‘s manus bestows ” , that demonstrate the genuinely atrocious effects of war on humanity, which are absolutely summed up by Benjamin Franklin ( 1706 -1790 ) , “ There ne’er was a good war or a bad peace ” .